Whether lasers will become fully-fledged weapons remains to be seen.
The familiar term "laser" is an abbreviation of "Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation." The possibility of conducting military operations using lasers has long fascinated the minds of science fiction writers, filmmakers, and later, military experts. Serious discussions about lasers began in the second half of the 20th century. However, after over half a century of costly developments and numerous tests, including fairly successful ones, lasers have not yet been employed in defending the borders of any country. More details can be found in the Sarbaz.kz material.
Soviet Union's Space Guns and Laser Tanks
From the mid-20th century, the Soviet Union engaged in the development and testing of laser weapons for military purposes, implementing several programs including "Terra" and "Omega." Laser trials took place at the Saryshagan test site in Kazakhstan. These projects showed a certain level of effectiveness, yet the created laser systems lacked the power to perform actual combat tasks. After the collapse of the Soviet Union, the work at the site was discontinued.
Throughout the development of laser weapons, there was primarily a focus on non-lethal armaments capable of temporarily blinding the opponent or disabling their optics. In the Soviet Union, laser pistols were utilized in space industries (for recoilless firing in spacecraft conditions or in open space without the risk of damaging the spacecraft's skin), while rifles like the LK (Luchevoy Karabin) were stored even after the dissolution of the Soviet Union. However, there is no information on the use of such weapons.
Projects like "Stiletto" and "Compression" became quite promising—referred to as laser tanks. The initial model had only one laser, easily thwarted by installing appropriate filters. Later, the "Compression" laser system, equipped with 12 lasers, was developed based on the "Msta-S" howitzer. However, after the collapse of the USSR, the formidable "Compression" was forgotten.
There is information that from 1980 to 1985, trials of the MSU laser installation were conducted on the auxiliary ship "Dixon" of the Black Sea Fleet. It was designed under the "Aidar" project for deployment in space to destroy satellites. According to other data, in 1987, a model of the Skif-DM space laser combat platform was launched on the "Energia" carrier rocket.
American Missile Defense Systems and Winged Lasers
Since the creation of the first laser in 1960, scientists and engineers of many militarily advanced countries, including the US, USSR (now Russia), Israel, China, Germany, and France, have been grappling with the development of laser weapons. Among them, the Americans have made significant progress. One of their projects was the experimental Boeing YAL-1. A modified Boeing 747-400F airliner served as the platform for a combat laser, intended for missile defense. It was based on a chemical oxygen laser with a power of 1 MW. The main advantage of YAL-1 over other missile defense systems was its theoretical capability to destroy missiles during the initial flight phase. American military authorities claimed successful laser testings multiple times. However, the real effectiveness of such a system seems dubious, and the program, costing 5 billion dollars, was terminated in 2011.
In the late 90s, American engineers developed the chemical laser of the Nautilus missile defense system, and in 2008, its upgraded version, the Skyguard. Both systems were built around the high-energy tactical laser (THEL), claimed by developers to be capable of destroying rocket-propelled projectiles, cruise missiles, short-range ballistic missiles, and drones. The working principle was that after detecting a target with radar, a computer-directed the laser installation to fire. In a fraction of a second, the laser beam caused enemy missiles and projectiles to detonate. However, some foreign scientists believe that such an effect can only be achieved under perfect weather conditions.
American engineers are also developing laser-based missile defense systems for naval purposes. In recent years, projects like MLD and LaWS were showcased, destroying only drones and rubber boats during trials. Nonetheless, engineers remain optimistic, stating that lasers will soon effectively strike cruise missiles, aircraft, helicopters, and moderately distant surface targets.
In 2013, the US Navy announced plans to equip warships with lasers capable of targeting unmanned aerial vehicles and small vessels. By late 2014, the first combat laser system under the LaWS project was deployed on the USS Ponce in the Persian Gulf. Judging by the capabilities demonstrated at "Farnborough - 2010," the system's power was estimated at 50 kW—sufficient to burn through a 40-millimeter steel plate.
Regarding the prospects of developing laser weapons specifically for naval needs, engineers face several specific challenges. For example, humid sea air adversely affects and weakens the beam's energy. Scientists have yet to devise a solution other than increasing the laser's power.
One of Boeing's laser weapon developments is the HEL-MD (High Energy Laser Mobile Demonstrator)—an eight-wheeled truck. In the trials conducted in 2013, the HEL-MD complex successfully hit training targets. Potential targets for such a laser installation might not only be drones but also artillery shells. The HEL-MD's power will soon be increased to 50 kW and projected to reach 100 kW in the foreseeable future.